Church Modes
Seven scales, in contemporary use, related to the traditional 16th century modes

Each mode can be based on a specific scale degree of the traditional major scale
The examples seen below are based on the C major scale, but a mode, in contemporary usage, can be based on any pitch
Ionian Mode (Major scale)

Dorian mode (2nd scale degree)

Phrygian mode (3rd scale degree)

Lydian mode (4th scale degree)

Mixolydian mode (5th scale degree)

Aeolian mode (pure minor scale)

Locrian mode (7th scale degree)

Each mode, except Locrian, can also be related to either the traditional major scale (Ionian) or pure minor scale (Aeolian).
Dorian - pure minor with a raised 6th

Phrygian - pure minor with a lowered 2nd

Lydian - major with a raised 4th

Mixolydian - major with a lowered 7th

The Locrian mode is seldom seen.
Since it is based on the 7th scale degree, its “tonic” chord is diminished